Convolution operator. Adapted from https://github.com/PetarV-/TikZ/tree/master/2D%20Convolution

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% Exercise illustration: Compute the pressure of an ideal gas in three dimensions upon a wall at $x = 0$ that attracts molecules at large distance and repels them at smaller distance. Let the force be given by the potential $U(x) = -A \, e^{-\alpha x} + B \, e^{-2 \alpha x}$, with $A,B > 0$. \documentclass[tikz,border={0 1}]{standalone} \usetikzlibrary{patterns,decorations.markings,backgrounds} \begin{document} \begin{tikzpicture}[thick] % Axes \def\xmin{-0.1}\def\xmax{6} \def\ymin{-0.7}\def\ymax{4} \draw[->] (\xmin,0) -- (\xmax+0.2,0) node[right] {$x$}; \draw[->] (0,\ymin) -- (0,\ymax) node[above] {$U(x)$}; % Potential \def\wall{0.5} \def\U{-\A*e^(-\a*\x) + \B*e^(-2*\a*\x)} \def\A{10}\def\B{25}\def\a{1} \draw[domain=\wall:\xmax,smooth,samples=100,blue] plot ({\x},{\U}) node [below left] {$\frac{1}{\alpha} \approx \ell$}; \def\A{15}\def\B{120}\def\a{3} \draw[domain=\wall:\xmax,smooth,samples=100,orange] plot ({\x},{\U}) node [above left] {$\frac{1}{\alpha} \ll \ell$}; % Wall \draw[pattern=north east lines] (0,0) rectangle (\wall,\ymax-0.2); \end{tikzpicture} \end{document}

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